49 BC Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River by the Numidians under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba of Numidia. Curio commits suicide to avoid capture.

79 Mt Vesuvius erupts, buries Roman Pompeii & Herculaneum, 15,000 die

410 Rome overrun by Visigoths under Alaric I for the first time in nearly 800 years, seen as the fall of the Western Roman Empire
1217 Battle of South Foreland: English fleet beats France
1349 6,000 Jews, blamed for the Plague, are killed in Mainz

1349 Jews of Cologne Germany set themselves on fire to avoid baptism

1391 Jews of Palma Majorca massacred

1456 The printing of the Gutenberg Bible is completed

1511 Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca.
1690 Job Charnock founds Calcutta India

1704 Battle of Málaga: largest naval battle in the War of the Spanish Succession; Tactically indecisive but a Grand Alliance strategic victory

1751 Thomas Colley executed in England for drowning supposed witch
1787 Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart completes his violin and piano sonata in A, K526 
1814 British forces capture Washington, D.C. and destroy many landmarks (War of 1812)

1816 The Treaty of St. Louis is signed in St. Louis, Missouri.
1853 1st potato chips prepared by chef George Crum (Saratoga Springs, NY)
1891 Thomas Edison patents motion picture camera
1908 Tommy Burns KOs Bill Squires in 13 for heavyweight boxing title

1929 Turkey & Persia signs friendship treaty

1929 43rd U.S. Women's National Championship: Helen Wills Moody beats Phoebe Holcroft Watson (6-4, 6-2)

1931 France & USSR sign neutrality/no attack treaty

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